The expansion of the princes’ power, the birth of the political territories (states).
From the end of the 4th century BC the local power of the oppidum disappears and the great territories governed by a single prince are defined. Greek and Roman writings explain how this happened. Orisson, a prince from the north of Jaén province, ruled over twelve fortified cities when he defeated the Carthaginian General Amilcar Barca, or Culchas, who controlled a territory comprising twenty eight oppida. Logically the capitals of these kingdoms, such as Cástulo, Ipolca or Baecula,grew to the scale of real cities. This phase was cut short by the Roman invasion when Escipión defeated the Carthaginians in 208 BC at the battle of Baecula in Santo Tomé.